Horizontal channel conflict arises from disagreements or competition among entities operating at the same level of the distribution channel. This conflict typically involves retailers, distributors, or intermediaries who are essentially on the same tier of the supply chain. Causes may include pricing disputes, territory overlaps, or conflicting interests. Managing and resolving horizontal channel conflicts is essential for maintaining effective collaboration, optimizing distribution efficiency, and ensuring a cohesive retail strategy within the same tier of the supply chain.